History of Lee Sch - History

History of Lee Sch - History

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( Sch: t. 74; a. 4 4-pdrs:, 2 2-pdrs., 10 swivels. )

In October, 1775, Col. John Glover, acting for General Washington, chartered the schooner Two Brothers from Thomas Stevens of Marblehead, Mass., as a replacement for Hannah. Her complement complete, 28 October, Capt. John Manley dropped her down with the tide, lay to off Tuck Point, and headed out to sea the next morning. On 27 November, the vessel, now known as Lee, took her first prize, the 80 ton sloop Polly carrying turnips and Spanish milled dollars from Halifax, Nova Scotia, to the British troops at Boston. After sending Polly into Beverly under a prize crew, Lee sailed off Boston, and at dusk the next day gave chase to the 250 ton brig Nancy, then beating her way into Boston. Mistaking Lee for a pilot boat Nancy laid her sails aback and sent up a string of signal flags. Captain Manley dispatched a boat with carefully picked men, ordering them to conceal their weapons as they rowed to and boarded Nancy. Taken by surprise, the brig surrendered without resistance, providing the Americans with a precious cargo of ordnance and gunpowder. Manley placed a prize crew in Nancy and accompanied her to Beverly.

Early in December, Lee was again giving chase, intercepting the 200-ton ship Concord laden with drygoods and coal. After capture, Concord was escorted into Marblehead Harbor. The next month Capt. Daniel Waters relieved Captain Stanley. On 29 January 1776, while operating with Franklin Lee took the 6-ton sloop Rainbow, carrying wood, potatoes, spruce beer, and meat. The next day the American shooners and their prize were sighted by the British frigate Fowey. After a fast chase, the Americans eluded the frigate and, v.ith their prize, reached safety in Cape Ann Harbor. Lee and Franklin soon slipped out to sea again, taking the 300-ton, Boston-bound brigantine Henry and Esther, carrying military cargo, northeast of Cape Ann on 1 February.

Early in March, Bancock and Lynch Joined Lee and Franklin off Cape Ann. On the night of the 4th, the schooners drove off British brigalope in a spirited engagement. The next day they took Susannah, a 300 ton British merchantman laden with coal, cheeses, and porter for General Howe's beleaguered army in Boston. After escorting their prize to Portsmouth, N.H., the squadron, commanded by Captain Manley in Hancock, returned to Cape Ann, where on the 10th they captured another ship the 300-ton transport Stokesby, bound for Boston with porter, cheese, vinegar, and hops. En route to Gloucester, the prize ran aground. After much of her cargo had been removed, British brig Hope arrived and put the torch to the hulk.

While Manley's squadron was at Gloucester, General Howe evacuated Boston and General Washington ordered his ships to dog the British Fleet, pouncing on any stragglers. The patriot schooners departed Gloucester 21 March, and sighted a merchant brig o~ Boston Light that afternoon. They chased their prey and by evening were close enough to open fire. Their quarry then hove to, but two British men-of-war, Savage and Diligent, arrived to compel the American schooners to abandon their prize.

Soon afterward, Manley divided his squadron, keeping Lynch and Lee with Hancock. On the afternoon of 2 April they sighted the brig E1izabeth. This prize, an American vessel captured by the British the previous October, was filled with loot plundered from the warehouses of patriot Bostonian merchants and carried a number of Tory refugees. Many of the Tories were transferred to Lee, while their leaders were taken on board Hancock, and the captive crew imprisoned in Lynch)`, which accompanied Hancock into Portsmouth.

On 13 May, Lee, operating with Warren o~ Cape Ann, was joined by Lynch. A fortnight later HMS Milford pursued the schooners, but they escaped in fog. On 7 June, they captured the British transport Anne, carrying a light infantry company of the 71st Highland Regiment and some twoscore oars sent out as fleet replacements. Sixty of the Highlanders were transferred to Lynch and taken to Plymouth, the remainder and the sailors were divided between Lee and Warren, which then escorted Anne toward Marblehead, outrunning the British frigate Milford to safety.

Lee next cruised alone off Nova Scotia without success until recapturing Betsy after that sloop had fallen prey to Milf ord in Massachusetts Bay. Lee scored again in early November by taking the brig Elizabeth, escorting her into Boston on the 7th. While Lee was in port, Captain Waters left the ship to journey to Philadelphia as a Member of Congress. He was succeeded by Capt. John Skinner.

Early in the spring of 1777, Lee was again underway from Boston. She took the schooner Hawke, 13 April, captured the fishing sloop Betsy, 3 May, and, a week later, caught the Irish brigantine Charles. The latter, laden with fish, was recapture en route to Boston under a prize crew. Soon the brigantines Capelin and Industry were added to the list of prizes and escorted to Casco Bay to be libeled. Lee then continued on to Boston, arriving 25 June.

Meanwhile, the ranks of General Washington's Navy were being thinned by captures. When Lynch struck her colors, 19 May 1777, Lee was the only schooner of the little flee left in operation. She pushed out into the Atlantic, 24 July. On 29 August, she caught the brig Industrious Bee and sent her into Boston. The next day, she took the snow Lively, but that prize was recaptured by the frigate Diamond, 23 September. Lee next turned south and took her final prize, the brigantine Dolphin, before returning to Marblehead, 26 October. A few days later, she was returned to her owner.

General Studies

The Associate of Arts degree in General Studies at Lee College allows students to be engaged in a broad array of subject areas such including the sciences, mathematics, oral and written communications, foreign languages, and history to help focus their interests and explore potential career pathways. General Studies degrees are flexible enough to allow a student to pursue their personal interests even as they fulfill their college Core requirements.

The curriculum provides a solid educational foundation for nearly any specialized major, and will transfer to most four-year universities within the State of Texas.

Regardless of what industry or role a worker is in, an Associate of Arts in General Studies will help develop personal, foundational, and business skills by strengthening critical thinking, problem-solving, communication skills, and more.

An advanced degree in General Studies can lead to a variety of different careers, such as:

Fairfax County History

The Virginia Room holds a collection of over 500 Fairfax County school yearbooks which are listed below. 331 of these yearbooks have been digitized and can be accessed here: Browse digitized FCPL Yearbooks . Only pre-1985 high school yearbooks will be digitized at this time. We welcome yearbook donations to add to our collection.

CAMERON Elementary School

CONGRESSIONAL School (Private) "Congressional Record"
1961 Vol. 2
1968 Vol. 9
1969 Vol. 10
1970 Vol. 11
1971 Vol. 12
1972 Vol. 13
1973 Vol. 14
1974 Vol. 15
1975 Vol. 16
1976 Vol. 17
1977 Vol. 18
1978 Vol. 19
1979 Vol. 20
1980 Vol. 21
1981 Vol. 22
1982 Vol. 23
1983 Vol. 24
1984 Vol. 25
1985 Vol. 26
1986 Vol. 27
1987 Vol. 28
1988 Vol. 29

EPISCOPAL High School "Whispers"

FLINT HILL School (Private) "Talon"
1965 Vol. 6
1969 Vol. 10
1971 Vol. 12
1974 Vol. 15
1975 Vol. 16
1976 Vol. 17
1981 Vol. 22

FLINT HILL School (Private) "Iditarod"
1991 Vol. 1
1992 Vol. 2
1993 Vol. 3
1995 Vol. 5
1996 Vol. 6
1997 Vol. 7
1999 Vol. 9

FRANCONIA Elementary School "Class Book"

FROST Middle School "Reflections"
1985 Vol. 21
1986 Vol. 22
1987 Vol. 23
1988 Vol. 24
1990 Vol. 26
1991 Vol. 27
1992 Vol. 28
1993 Vol. 29
1994 Vol. 30
1995 Vol. 31
1996 Vol. 32
1997 Vol. 33
1998 Vol. 34
1999 Vol. 35
2001 Vol. 37
2002 Vol. 38
2003 Vol. 39
2004 Vol. 40
2005 Vol. 41
2006 Vol. 42
2007 Vol. 43
2008 Vol. 44
2009 Vol. 45
2010 Vol. 46
2011 Vol. 47
2012 Vol. 48
2013 Vol. 49
2014 Vol. 50
2015 Vol. 51
2016 Vol. 52
2017 Vol. 53

GEORGE MASON University "Advocate"

GEORGE MASON University "Breaking New Ground"

GLEN FOREST Elementary School

GREENBRIAR WEST Elementary School "Classbook"

HERNDON High School "Hornet"
1950 Vol. 5
1958 Vol. 13
1964 Vol. 19
1973 Vol. 28
1974 Vol. 29
1976 Vol. 31
1982 Vol. 37
1983 Vol. 38
1984 Vol. 39
1987 Vol. 42
1988 Vol. 43
1991 Vol. 46
1992 Vol. 47
1993 Vol. 48
1994 Vol. 49
1995 Vol. 50
1996 Vol. 51
1997 Vol. 52
1998 Vol. 53
1999 Vol. 54
2000 Vol. 55
2001 Vol. 56
2002 Vol. 57
2003 Vol. 58
2004 Vol. 59
2005 Vol. 60
2006 Vol. 61
2007 Vol. 62
2008 Vol. 63
2009 Vol. 64
2010 Vol. 65
2011 Vol. 66
2012 Vol. 67
2014 Vol. 69
2015 Vol. 70
2016 Vol. 71

HERNDON Middle School "Talon"
1982 Vol. 15
2003 Vol. 36
2004 Vol. 37

HOLMES Intermediate School "Old Ironsides"
1971 Vol. 5
1973 Vol. 7
1978 Vol. 12
1981 Vol. 15
1982 Vol. 16
1983 Vol. 17
1984 Vol. 18
1985 Vol. 19
1986 Vol. 20

HUTCHISON Elementary School

IRVING Middle School "Sketch Book"

JEFFERSON High School (Falls Church) "Jeffersonian"

LAKE BRADDOCK Secondary School "Lair"
1974 Vol. 1
1975 Vol. 2
1976 Vol. 3
1981 Vol. 8
1985 Vol. 12
1986 Vol. 13
1987 Vol. 14
1988 Vol. 15
1989 Vol. 16
1990 Vol. 17
2012 Vol. 39

LANGLEY High School "Shire"
1966 Vol. 1
1967 Vol. 2
1971 Vol. 6
1972 Vol. 7
1974 Vol. 9
1975 Vol. 10
1981 Vol. 16
1982 Vol. 17
1983 Vol. 18
1984 Vol. 19
1999 Vol. 34
2000 Vol. 35
2001 Vol. 36

LANIER Intermediate School "Chattahoochee"
1961 Vol. 1
1964 Vol. 4
1966 Vol. 6
1967 Vol. 7
1968 Vol. 8
1973 Vol. 13
1975 Vol. 15
1976 Vol. 16
1978 Vol. 18
1980 Vol. 20
1981 Vol. 21
1982 Vol. 22
1983 Vol. 23
1984 Vol. 24
1985 Vol. 25
1986 Vol. 26
1990 Vol. 30
1991 Vol. 31
1992 Vol. 32
1993 Vol. 33
1998 Vol. 38
2001 Vol. 41
2003 Vol. 43
2005 Vol. 45

LUTHER JACKSON-I Intermediate School "Paw"

MADEIRA School (Private)

MANTUA Elementary School

NAVY Elementary School

PAUL VI Catholic High School "Imprints"
1985 Vol. 2
1986 Vol. 3
1987 Vol. 4
1988 Vol. 5
1989 Vol. 6
1990 Vol. 7
1991 Vol. 8
1992 Vol. 9
1993 Vol. 10
1994 Vol. 11
1995 Vol. 12
1996 Vol. 13
1997 Vol. 14
1998 Vol. 15
1999 Vol. 16
2000 Vol. 17
2001 Vol. 18
2002 Vol. 19
2003 Vol. 20
2004 Vol. 21
2005 Vol. 22
2006 Vol. 23
2007 Vol. 24
2008 Vol. 25
2009 Vol. 26
2010 Vol. 27
2011 Vol. 28
2012 Vol. 29
2013 Vol. 30
2014 Vol. 31
2015 Vol. 32
2016 Vol. 33
2017 Vol. 34
2018 Vol. 35
2019 Vol. 36
2020 Vol. 37

POE Middle School "Pendulum"

ROBINSON Secondary School "Sentry"
1977 Vol. 6
1978 Vol. 7
2006 Vol. 34

ROBINSON High School "Above & Beyond"
1972 Vol. 1
1973 Vol. 2
1979 Vol. 8
1980 Vol. 9
1981 Vol. 10
1985 Vol. 14
1987 Vol. 16

ROCKY RUN Middle School "Legends"
1982 Vol. 2
1984 Vol. 4

SOUTH COUNTY High School "Lock & Key"
2014 Vol. 9

THOREAU Intermediate "Walden"
1965 Vol. 5

WALNUT HILL Elementary School "Classbook"

WEST POTOMAC High School "Predator"
1986 Vol. 1
2015 Vol. 30

WESTFIELD High School "The Guardian"
2013 Vol. 13

WHITMAN Intermediate School "Reflections"

WHITTIER Intermediate School "Wildcats"

WILTON WOODS Elementary School "Classbook"

WILLOW SPRINGS Elementary School

WOODSON High School "Cavalier"
1963 Vol. 1
1964 Vol. 2
1965 Vol. 3
1966 Vol. 4
1967 Vol. 5
1968 Vol. 6
1969 Vol. 7
1970 Vol. 8
1971 Vol. 9
1972 Vol. 10
1973 Vol. 11
1974 Vol. 12
1975 Vol. 13
1976 Vol. 14
1977 Vol. 15
1978 Vol. 16
1979 Vol. 17
1980 Vol. 18
1981 Vol. 19
1982 Vol. 20
1984 Vol. 22
1985 Vol. 23
1987 Vol. 25
1989 Vol. 27
1990 Vol. 28
1991 Vol. 29
1992 Vol. 30
1993 Vol. 31
1994 Vol. 32
1995 Vol. 33
1996 Vol. 34
1997 Vol. 35
1998 Vol. 36
1999 Vol. 37
2000 Vol. 38
2001 Vol. 39
2002 Vol. 40
2003 Vol. 41
2004 Vol. 42
2005 Vol. 43
2007 Vol. 45
2008 Vol. 46
2009 Vol. 47
2011 Vol. 49
2012 Vol. 50
2013 Vol. 51
2014 Vol. 52

The Damning History Behind UT’s ‘The Eyes of Texas’ Song

Student athletes wrote a letter urging officials to change the tune, which was first performed in a minstrel show.

On June 4, after one of their first in-person practices since the coronavirus outbreak, the Texas Longhorns football team lined up outside Darrell K Royal&mdashTexas Memorial Stadium and began to march toward downtown Austin. They were joining thousands of others across the world protesting the killing of George Floyd when they reached the Texas Capitol, players, coaches, and support staff knelt in silence for eight minutes and 46 seconds, the length of time Floyd was pinned to the ground with a policeman&rsquos knee on his neck. Then head coach Tom Herman addressed his players: &ldquoYou&rsquore a minority football player at one of the biggest brands in the country. You have a voice. Use it.&rdquo

His players took that message to heart. Days later, a group of more than two dozen Texas student athletes&mdashincluding football, basketball, and track stars&mdash posted a letter on social media in which they vowed not to participate in upcoming recruiting or fund-raising events until the university administration addressed a series of concerns. Those included renaming certain buildings on campus that are named for men who supported the Confederacy or segregation, creating an outreach program for underprivileged communities, and establishing a permanent exhibit centered on the history of black athletes in the Texas Athletics Hall of Fame , which opened last year and features statues of running backs Earl Campbell and Ricky Williams. &ldquoAs ambassadors, it is our duty to utilize our voice and role as leaders in the community to push for change to the benefit of the entire UT community,&rdquo they wrote. In particular, the final item on the players&rsquo agenda has ignited a debate throughout the Longhorn community over the past week: they called for officials to replace &ldquo&lsquoThe Eyes of Texas&rsquo with a new song without racial undertones.&rdquo

Read Next

The Battle to Rewrite Texas History

&ldquoThe Eyes of Texas&rdquo is not your typical school song. It&rsquos something closer to a prayer. (&ldquoThe Eyes of Texas&rdquo is UT&rsquos official alma mater tune and an unofficial fight song the school&rsquos official fight song is &ldquoTexas Fight&rdquo). Texas Longhorns sing it to begin and end every UT game. Alumni join in song at weddings and funerals, and they whisper it to their babies as they rock them to sleep. At the 1960 Democratic National Convention, a twenty-piece band played the tune to introduce Lyndon B. Johnson onstage. According to multiple football players who played under coach Mack Brown, incoming freshmen were instructed to meet with Jeff &ldquoMad Dog&rdquo Madden, the strength and conditioning coach, to learn the words to the song before even coming onto the field for their first practice.

For many Longhorns&mdashmyself included&mdashthe athletes&rsquo letter marked the first time they had learned of the song&rsquos problematic origins. &ldquoThe Eyes of Texas&rdquo had always been a part of my life as a fifth-generation Longhorn, with words as ubiquitous as those in &ldquoTwinkle, Twinkle Little Star.&rdquo I had never questioned where those songs came from I assumed they had always been there.

A reckoning with the past of &ldquoThe Eyes of Texas&rdquo has been gaining momentum in recent years, though. About a decade ago, a group of Texas basketball players refused to sing it after learning the song&rsquos history, and just two years ago, the Texas student government debated the merits of the song. Neither movement got much attention at the time&mdashbut now that monuments to the United States&rsquo racist history are toppling around the country, this call to action has been reinvigorated.

To trace the history of the tune, you must go back to the turn of the twentieth century, when William Prather was president of the university. In a 1938 memoir, T.U. Taylor, the first dean of the College of Engineering at Texas, alleged that the phrase, &ldquothe eyes of Texas are upon you,&rdquo was a reference to something Robert E. Lee often told students when he was the president of Washington College, in Virginia, where Prather studied law in the late 1860s. Taylor claimed that Lee often told students, &ldquoThe eyes of the South are upon you,&rdquo as a way of reminding them to work hard and uphold Southern traditions. For more than 80 years, that story was accepted as fact. But a recent report to study the song&rsquos origins could not find any primary sources that show that Lee ever used the phrase.

Instead the report found that Prather, who became UT&rsquos president in 1899, more likely found his inspiration from Confederate brigadier general John Gregg of Texas. Gregg reportedly once told his soldiers, &ldquoThe eyes of General Lee are upon you!&rdquo But, the report notes, similar phrases had been used long before the Civil War, including in the Book of Job (&ldquoFor His eyes are on the ways of a man.&rdquo) and by George Washington (&ldquoThe eyes of all our countrymen are now upon us&rdquo).

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But it was Gregg&rsquos saying that Prather referenced when speaking to students after being named president. According to a 1926 Dallas Morning News column remembering her father, Prather&rsquos daughter said her father gave a speech where he recounted Gregg leading troops into battle. She said that the crowd roared when the president said: &ldquoI would like to paraphrase [Gregg&rsquos] utterance, and say to you, &lsquoForward, young men and women of the University, the eyes of Texas are upon you!&rdquo

From then on, it became Prather&rsquos catchphrase. His daughter recalled one instance when students were waiting to hear the president speak. &ldquoBet you a quarter he says &lsquoeyes of Texas&rsquo before he gets through,&rdquo one student said to another. He won the quarter.

In 1902, a UT student named Lewis Johnson made it his personal mission to create a school song. He played tuba in the band, directed the school choir, and began something called Promenade Concerts, where the marching band would move through campus playing overtures and marches by John Philip Sousa. It bothered him that they played other schools&rsquo songs, like &ldquoFair Harvard.&rdquo He wanted a tune to call Texas&rsquos own, but didn&rsquot know how to write the lyrics.

He approached his classmate John L. Sinclair, the editor of the yearbook. Together, Johnson and Sinclair wrote a song titled &ldquoJolly Students of Varsity,&rdquo but it wasn&rsquot quite what they wanted, so they shelved the idea. Nearly a year later, Johnson was standing in line at the post office when Sinclair ran up to him and handed him a scrap of paper torn from a bundle of groceries. He&rsquod had a flash of inspiration, he said. Scribbled on the paper, he had written a poem:

They watch above you all the day, the bright blue eyes of Texas. At midnight they&rsquore with you all the way, the sleepless eyes of Texas. The eyes of Texas are upon you, all the livelong day. The eyes of Texas are upon you. They&rsquore with you all the way. They watch you through the peaceful night. They watch you in the early dawn, w hen from the eastern skies the high light, tells that the night is gone. Sing me a song of Texas, and Texas&rsquo myriad eyes. Countless as the bright stars, that fill the midnight skies. Vandyke brown, vermillion, sepia, Prussian blue, Ivory black and crimson lac, and eyes of every hue.

The two students decided to tweak the lyrics to more explicitly pay homage to Prather&rsquos catchphrase. Johnson suggested that they set the lyrics to the tune of &ldquoI&rsquove Been Working on the Railroad,&rdquo and they eyed an annual campus minstrel show on May 12, 1903, as the right time to debut it, since there would be a large audience, including President Prather. These minstrel shows, which went on until the sixties, were fund-raisers organized by students and featured white performers singing and dancing in blackface.

The &ldquoVarsity quartet,&rdquo with Johnson on tuba and Sinclair on banjo, performed after the school choir, in the middle of the show. According to Gordon, it&rsquos likely that the men donned blackface onstage as they performed the song. Their performance was a hit, and the crowd demanded that they play the song again and again. The very next day, on one of Johnson&rsquos Promenade Concerts, the band marched through campus playing the song while students sang along. That fall, during UT&rsquos annual bout with Texas A&M, the Aggies were driving late in the fourth quarter when they took a timeout. A student started singing the words, and soon, hundreds of others at Clark Field were joining in. A tradition was born, and &ldquoThe Eyes of Texas&rdquo eventually became ingrained into Longhorn student life.

The backlash surrounding &lsquoEyes&rsquo has grown considerably in the five days since the student athletes&rsquo letter was published. Student government and the university&rsquos Black Student Alliance voiced their support of the statement. And on Tuesday morning, a group of former Longhorn athletes, including Cat Osterman and Quan Cosby, tweeted a statement in solidarity with current athletes. &ldquoThey&rsquore not asking for new iPads, and we already have the best locker rooms in the country,&rdquo says Daron K. Roberts, the founder of UT&rsquos Center for Sports Leadership and Innovation . &ldquoThey&rsquore asking for institutional changes that they think can have an impact on the racism that they see.&rdquo

Other people&mdashincluding alumni&mdashare resistant to the change, citing tradition. On message boards and comment sections, detractors say that the song&rsquos meaning has changed over the years. John Burt, a receiver who graduated in 2019, told the school paper, &ldquoWhenever I sang &lsquoThe Eyes of Texas,&rsquo I was singing it because it&rsquos the school song, and I was singing it purely out of school pride.&rdquo

In spite of the song&rsquos origins, the Texas athletics department has yet to take a stance either way&mdashand it&rsquos unclear if it will be sung again come fall. Athletics director Chris Del Conte tweeted in response to the letter: &ldquoI am always willing to have meaningful conversations regarding any concerns our student athletes have. We will do the same in this situation and look forward to having those discussions.&rdquo (The athletics department declined to comment for this story.) In an email to students earlier this week, interim president Jay Hartzell wrote: &ldquoWorking together, we will create a plan this summer to address these issues, do better for our students and help overcome racism,&rdquo although he never addressed the song by name.

If UT has proved anything over the years, it&rsquos that change happens slowly and traditions have a stubborn grasp on the institution. Since around 2001, Gordon has been leading &ldquoracial geography&rdquo tours of the UT campus that highlight the school&rsquos forgotten racist history. One subject of Gordon&rsquos tour is George Washington Littlefield. Littlefield has long been known as one of UT&rsquos earliest and most prolific donors, and all around campus, you can still see his influence: a cafe and residence hall are named after him, and two of the campus&rsquos most prominent landmarks are the Littlefield Home and Littlefield Fountain.

In their letter, student athletes are calling for his name to be removed from Littlefield Hall because, as Gordon teaches, Littlefield was a slave owner who fought for the Confederacy in the Civil War. Late in his life, Littlefield poured money into making UT more Southern-centric and commissioned Italian sculptor Pompeo Coppini to design statues of Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee, as well as his namesake fountain. The fountain&rsquos inscription, which was removed in 2016 , described how Confederates were &ldquonot dismayed by defeat nor discouraged by misrule [and] builded [sic] from the ruins of a devastating war a greater South.&rdquo Interestingly, when he was completing the project, Coppini recommended to Littlefield that the monuments should honor Americans fighting in World War I. When Littlefield refused, Coppini replied: &ldquoAs time goes by, they will look to the Civil War as a blot on the pages of American history, and the Littlefield Mem­orial will be resented as keeping up the hatred between the Northern and Southern states.&rdquo

In recent weeks, Gordon&rsquos tours of what he calls a &ldquoneo-Confederate university&rdquo have become so popular that the College of Liberal Arts made them available virtually . For his part, Gordon doesn&rsquot currently have a position on whether or not the university should cease singing &ldquoThe Eyes of Texas.&rdquo Either way, he says, the discussion is vital. &ldquoI just think people need to know what its roots are,&rdquo he says, &ldquoAnd then we should decide collectively what we want to do about that.&rdquo

Update 06/17: This article has been amended to reflect that &ldquoThe Eyes of Texas&rdquo is UT&rsquos alma mater and an unofficial fight song.

History of Lee Sch - History

HIST 3822
3 credits/Spring 2004
T/Th 11:15-12:30
Anderson 330

Professor Barbara Welke
752 Social Sciences Bldg.
Office Hours:
T 1-3 pm (or by appt.)
tel: (612) 624-7017
[email protected]


  • William H. Chafe, The Unfinished Journey: America Since World War II, 5th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).
  • Lizabeth Cohen, A Consumers' Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003).
  • Gary Gerstle, American Crucible: Race and Nation in the 20th Century (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001).
  • Godfrey Hodgson, America In Our Time (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Company, Inc. 1976).
  • Alice Kessler Harris, In Pursuit of Equity: Women, Men, and the Quest for Economic Citizenship in 20th-Century America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001).
  • Thomas J. McCormick, America's Half-Century: United States Foreign Policy in the Cold War and After, 2nd ed. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995).



Alan Berube, Coming Out Under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War II (1990).

Alan Brinkley, The End of Reform: New Deal Liberalism in Recession and War (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995).

Lizabeth Cohen, A Consumers' Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003).

Robert Dallek, Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1933-1945 (1979).

Ruth Milkman, Gender at Work: The Dynamics of Job Segregation by Sex During World War II (1988).

Alice Yang Murray, What Did the Internment of Japanese Americans Mean? (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press, 2000).

Merle E. Reed, Seedtime for the Modern Civil Rights Movement (1991).

Studs Terkel, "The Good War": An Oral History of World War II (1984).


Links Re Enola Gay Exhibit Controversies

The Day After Trinity: J. Robert Oppenheimer and The Atomic Bomb (documentary)

Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb and the Making of an American Myth (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995).

John Hersey, Hiroshima (New York: Vintage Books, 1989)(orig. pub. by A.A. Knopf, 1946)(first serialized in the New Yorker magazine).

Edward T. Linenthal and Tom Englehardt, eds., History Wars: The Enola Gay and Other Battles for the American Past (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1996).

Robert James Maddox, "Why We Had to Drop the Atomic Bomb," American Heritage (May/June 1995).

Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (1986) and Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb (1995).

Martin J. Sherwin, A World Destroyed: The Atomic Bomb and the Grand Alliance (1975).


Assigned Readings (Web-Links):

  • George F. Kennan, "The X Article" (1947)
  • The Truman Doctrine (1947)
  • NSC-68 (1950)Note: Because NSC-68 is so long, I would like you to read only the following sections: Section I (Background), IV, VI (A), IX (D), Conclusions and Recommendations.
  • Yalta System
  • Atomic Bomb
  • Cold War
  • Truman Doctrine
  • Iron Curtain
  • Marshall Plan
  • NATO
  • Berlin Blockade
  • Korean War
  • NSC-68
  • The Long Telegram
  • John L. Gaddis, The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, 1941-1947 (1972)
  • George Kennan, Memoirs, 1925-1950 (1967) and Memoirs, 1950-1963 (1972).
  • Melvyn Leffler, A Preponderance of Power (1992).
  • Thomas Paterson, On Every Front: The Making and Unmaking of the Cold War (1992).
  • Reinhold Wagnleitner, Coca-Colonization: The Cultural Mission of the United States in Austria after the Second World War (1994).
  • Daniel Yergin, A Shattered Peace: The Origins of the Cold War and the National Security State (1977).


  • The Waldorf Statement (Dec 3, 1947)(beginning the Hollywood blacklist)
  • Senator Joseph McCarthy, Speech at Wheeling, W.Va. (Feb. 9, 1950)(electronic reserve through Wilson)
  • William O. Douglas, "The Black Silence of Fear," New York Times Magazine, 13 Jan. 1952 (excerpt)(electronic reserve through Wilson)
  • Robert Griffith and Athan Theoharis, ed., The Specter: Original Essays on the Cold War and the Origins of McCarthyism (1974).
  • Joel Kovel, Red Hunting in the Promised Land: Anticommunism and the Making of America (1994).
  • Ellen Schrecker, Many are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America (Boston: Little, Brown, 1998).
  • Stanley J. Kutler, The American Inquisition: Justice and Injustice in the Cold War (1982).
  • David Oshinsky, A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Josephy McCarthy (1983).
  • Thomas Reeves, The Life and Times of Joe McCarthy (1982).

"Inherit the Wind," (1960, based on the 1955 play by Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee)

2/5 Domestic Containment: Family, Suburbia & Consumption

  • The Kitchen Debate (1959)
  • G. I. Bill (1944)
  • National Defense Education Act (1958)
  • Interstate Highway Act (1957)
  • Homemaker
  • Leavittown
  • Consumer Republic
  • Domestic Containment
  • Baby Boom
  • "The Organization Man"
  • Restrictive covenants, Red-Lining and Shelley v. Kraemer (1948)
  • the Beats (Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, William S. Burroughs. . . .)
  • Lizabeth Cohen, A Consumers' Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003).
  • Ellen Herman, The Romance of American Psychology: Political Culture in the Age of Experts (1995).
  • Elaine Tyler May, Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era (New York: Basic Books, 1999)(rev. ed.).
  • Lary May, The Big Tomorrow: Hollywood and the Politics of the American Way (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000).
  • Joanne Meyerowitz, ed., Not June Cleaver: Women and Gender in Postwar America, 1945-1960 (1994).
  • Jane S. Smith, Patenting the Sun: Polio and the Salk Vaccine (1990).
  • Rickie Solinger, Wake Up, Little Susie: Single Pregnancy and Race Before Roe v. Wade (1992).
  • Thomas J. Sugrue, The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996).
  • Julian E. Zelizer, Taxing America: Wilbur D. Mills, Congress, and the State, 1945-1975 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Influential Books from the Time:

  • John Kenneth Galbraith, The Affluent Society (1958).
  • Allen Ginsberg, Howl (poem)(1956).
  • John Keats, The Crack in the Picture Window (1957).
  • Jack Kerouac, On the Road (1957).
  • C. Wright Mills, The Power Elite (1956).
  • Vance Packard, The Hidden Persuaders (1957), The Status Seekers (1959), The Waste Makers (1960).
  • David Reisman, The Lonely Crowd (1950).
  • William H. Whyte, The Organization Man (1955).
  • Sloan Wilson, The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit (1955).
  • The Wild One (1953)(starring Marlon Brando).
  • Blackboard Jungle (1955)(starring Sidney Poitier).
  • Rebel Without a Cause (1955)(starring James Dean).


In Class: Atomic Cafe (Documentary Film)(1982)

  • Bikini (1946)
  • Strontium-90 shows up in milk (1959)
  • Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (1963)
  • Three Mile Island (1979)
  • Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)("Star Wars")
  • Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (1990)

Paul Boyer, By the Bomb's Early Light: American Thought and Culture at the Dawn of the Atomic Age (1994 rev ed.)

Recommended Novels (and the changing view from children's literature):

  • Heinz Haber, Our Friend the Atom (1956)(and film of same name produced by Walt Disney and exhibit at Disneyland's Tomorrowland sponsored by General Dynamics)
  • Nevil Shute, On The Beach (1957)
  • Eugene Burdick and Harvey Wheeler, Fail Safe (1962)
  • Kurt Vonnegut, Cat's Cradle (1963)
  • Dr. Seuss, The Butter Battle Book (1984)
  • On The Beach (1959, based on novel by Nevil Shute, starring Gregory Peck)
  • Ladybug Ladybug (1963)
  • Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964, Dir. by Stanley Kubrick, starring Peter Sellers)


  • Remembering Jim Crow, American Radioworks Documentary by Stephen Smith, Kate Ellis, and Sasha Aslanian
  • OWI/FSA Photographs: Images of Jim Crow
  • #1 Greyhound Rest Stop, betw. Louisville and Nashville, 1943
  • #2 Greyhound Bus Station, Rome, Ga., 1943
  • #3 Cafe, Durham, NC, 1940
  • #4 (Drinking Fountain, Halifax, NC, 1938)
  • Executive Order 9981 (Ordering Desegregation of Armed Services)
  • Thurgood Marshall
  • Little Rock
  • The Little Rock Nine
  • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
  • Executive Order 9981 (see above)
  • NAACP strategy for education
  • Brown I (1954) Brown II (1955)("all deliberate speed")
  • President Dwight Eisenhower
  • Little Rock (Ark.)(1957)
  • Ruby Bridges (New Orleans, 1960)(for the excerpt I read in class, see John Steinbeck, Travels with Charley, pp. 247-257)
  • Daisy Bates, The Long Shadow of Little Rock (1964)
  • Charlayne Hunter-Gault, In My Place (N.Y.: Vintage Books, 1993)
  • Richard Kluger, Simple Justice (N.Y.: Vintage Books, 1975)
  • J. Anthony Lucas, Common Ground (N.Y.: Knopf, 1985)
  • Gerald N. Rosenberg, The Hollow Hope: Can Courts Bring About Social Change? (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).
  • Mark Tushnet, The NAACP's Legal Strategy Against Segregated Education, 1925-1950 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987).



Short Paper #1 Due


Coming to a Location Near You Soon (or, how a sick dog led me to postpone this one will reschedule later in the term!)


  • Martin Luther King, Jr., "Letter from Birmingham Jail" (1963)
  • Anne Moody, Coming of Age in Mississippi (The Movement)
  • Letters from Mississippi (Freedom Summer)(electronic reserve)
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)
  • Rosa Parks
  • Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference)
  • Sit-Ins
  • SNCC (Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)
  • Freedom Rides
  • Mississippi Freedom Summer
  • MFDP (Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party)
  • Civil Rights Act (1964)
  • Voting Rights Act (1965)
  • James Meredith
  • March Against Fear
  • Stokeley Carmichael (and SNCC)
  • Floyd McKissick (and CORE)
  • Black Power
  • Watts Riot (1965)
  • Black Nationalism
  • Malcolm X
  • Black Panthers (Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founders, 1966)
  • Kerner Commission

Recommended (Secondary) Readings:

  • Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954-1963 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988).
  • Taylor Branch, Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years, 1963-65 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998).
  • Vicki Crawford, Jacqueline Anne Rouse, and Barbara Woods, Women in the Civil Rights Movement: Trailblazers & Torchbearers, 1941-1965 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990).
  • Mary L. Dudziak, Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000).
  • Todd Gitlin, The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage (New York: Bantam Books, 1987, 1993).
  • J. Anthony Lukas, Common Ground: A Turbulent Decade in the Lives of Three American Families (New York: Knopf, 1985).
  • Diane McWhorter, Carry Me Home: Birmingham, Alabama: The Climactic Battle of the Civil Rights Revolution (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001).
  • Charles M. Payne, I've Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995).
  • Morton Sosna, In Search of the Silent South: Southern Liberals and the Race Issue (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977).

Recommended (Primary) Readings:

  • Eldridge Cleaver, Soul on Ice (New York: McGraw Hill, 1968).
  • Malcolm X with Alex Haley, The Autobiography of Malcolm X (New York: Grove Press, 1965).
  • Dorothy Height, Open Wide the Freedom Gates, A Memoir (New York: Public Affairs, 2003).
  • United States. Kerner Commission, Report of the National Advisory Committee on Civil Disorders (New York: Bantam Books, 1968).


  • The Pill (1960)
  • President's Commission on the Status of Women (1960, Report 1963)
  • Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique

Recommended (Secondary) Readings:

  • Jane Sherron DeHart and Donald Mathews, Sex, Gender and the Politics of the ERA (1988).
  • Alice Echols, Daring to be Bad: Radical Feminism in America, 1967-1975 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989).
  • Sara Evans, Personal Politics: The Roots of Women's Liberation in the Civil Rights Movement and the New Left (New York: Knopf, 1979).
  • Hugh Davis Graham, Civil Rights and the Presidency: Race and Gender in American Politics, 1960-1972 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).
  • Alice Kessler-Harris, In Pursuit of Equity: Women, Men, and the Quest for Economic Citizenship in 20th Century America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001).
  • Amy Swerdlow, Women Strike for Peace: Traditional Motherhood and Radical Politics in the 1960s (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993).

Recommended (Primary) Readings:

  • Michele Wallace, Black Macho and the Myth of the Super Woman (1970)
  • Kate Millett, Sexual Politics (1971).
  • Shulamith Firestone, The Dialectic of Sex (1972).
  • Robin Morgan, ed., Sisterhood is Powerful: An Anthology of Writings From the Women's Liberation Movement (New York: Random House, 1970).


Assigned Reading (Web-Links):

Recommended (Secondary) Readings:

  • Robert A. Caro, The Years of Lyndon Johnson: The Path to Power (1982), The Years of Lyndon Johnson: Means of Ascent (1990), The Years of Lyndon Johnson: Master of the Senate (2002).
  • James Patterson, America's Struggle Against Poverty, 1900-1980 (1983).

Recommended (Primary) Readings:


NOTE: Moved to 4/6 and 4/8 when we talk about the mid-70s.


  • President Lyndon B. Johnson, Speech at Johns Hopkins University (April 6, 1965) "Peace Without Conquest" Speech
  • For maps of the War in Southeast Asia: Go to the National History Day link. Select Maps. Select Miliary Maps from the U. S. Military Academy. Select Vietnam.
  • Michael R. Belknap, The Vietnam War on Trial: The My Lai Massacre and the Court-Martial of Lieutenant Calley (Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 2003).
  • Eric M. Bergerud, Dynamics of Defeat (Boulder: Westview Press, 1993)(superb analysis of military strategy and tactics).
  • David Halbertson, The Best and the Brightest (New York: Random House, 1972)(very good, very readable, still the best account of how and why JFK and advisors got the U. S. committed to war)..
  • Michael Herr, Dispatches (New York: Vintage Books, 1968).
  • Arnold R. Isaacs, Vietnam Shadows: The War, Its Ghosts, and Its Legacy (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999).
  • David Kaiser, American Tragedy: Kennedy, Johnson, and the Origins of the Vietnam War (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 2000).
  • Fredrik Logevall, Choosing War: The Lost Chance for Peace and the Escalation of War in Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).
  • Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (New York: Vintage Books, 1988).
  • The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons From the Life of Robert S. McNamara, Dir. by Errol Morris (2003)(Winner Academy Award for Best Documentary)
  • Hearts and Minds, Dir. by Peter Davis (1975)(Winner Academy Award for Best Documentary)

I recommend watching both films.

Memoirs and novels: There are lots of them. Here are a couple you might start with -

  • Lynda Van Devanter, Home Before Morning: The Story of an Army Nurse in Vietnam (New York, 1993).
  • Bao Ninh, Sorrow of War (transl. London, 1993)(an underground bestseller in Vietnam).


In-class: Berkeley in the Sixties (1993)(Film)(available at Learning Resource Center, Walter Library if you'd like to see the whole thing)

  • John F. and Rosemary S. Bannan, Law, Morality, and Vietnam: The Peace Militants and the Courts (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1974).
  • Daniel Berrigan, The Trial of the Catonsville Nine (New York: Bantam Books, 1971).
  • Michael S. Foley, Confronting the War Machine: Draft Resistance During the Vietnam War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003).
  • Todd Gitlin, The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage (New York: Bantam Books, 1987).
  • Doug Rossinow, The Politics of Authenticity: Liberalism, Christianity, and the New Left in America (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998).

SPRING BREAK 3/15-3/19

3/23 1968




  • Paul N. Edwards, The Closed World: Computers and the Politics of Discourse in Cold War America (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1997).
  • Dick Hanson, The NewAlchemists: Silicon Valley and the Microelectronics Revolution (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1982).
  • Paul Mackun, "Silicon Valley and Route 128: Two Faces of the American Technopolis,"
  • David Naguib Pellow and Lisa Sun-Hee Park, The Silicon Valley of Dreams: Environmental Injustic, Immigrant Workers, and the High-Tech Global Economy (New York: New York University Press, 2002).
  • Tom Wolfe, "The Tinkerings of Robert Noyce: How the Sun Rose on the Silicon Valley," Esquire Magazine (December 1983), 346-374.


  • We have discussed Richard Nixon many times over the course of the term. I highly recommend a review essay of recent work on Nixon by David Greenberg, "Richard the Bleeding Hearted," in Reviews in American History 30.1 (2002): 156-167. (Note: This link will only work if you are on campus. If you are connecting to the internet from an off-campus location, you should go through the Library website. Select "Articles" from the menu and then you can access the review through any of a number of databases, including Muse or America: History and Life.)
  • David Greenberg, Nixon's Shadow: The History of an Image (New York: W. W. Norton, 2003).
  • Leonard Garment, In Search of Deep Throat: The Greatest Political Mystery of Our Time (New York: Basic Books, 2000).
  • Melvin Small, The Presidency of Richard Nixon (Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1999).


  • J. Brooks Flippen, Nixon and the Environment (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2000).
  • Gerald Markowitz and David Rosner, Deceit and Denial: The Deadly Politics of Industrial Pollution (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002).


In-Class: "Little Injustices" (Film)

  • Lizabeth Cohen, A Consumers' Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postward America (New York: A. A. Knopf, 2003).


  • Alice Echols, Daring to Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America, 1967-1975 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989).
  • Sara M. Evans, Tidal Wave: How Women Changed America at Century's End (New York: Free Press, 2003).
  • Estelle Freedman and John D'Emilio, Intimate Matters (1988)
  • Matt S. Meier and Feliciano Ribera, Mexican American, American Mexicans: From Conquistadors to Chicanos (1972 rev. ed. 1993).
  • Peter Novick, The Holocaust in American Life (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1999).
  • Marc Stein, City of Sisterly and Brotherly Loves: Lesbian and Gay Philadelphia, 1945-1972 (2000).



  • Godfrey Hodgson, The World Turned Right Side Up: A History of the Conservative Ascendancy in America (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1996).
  • Lisa McGirr, Suburban Warriors: The Origins of the New American Right (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001).


  • J. L. Gaddis, "Hanging Tough Paid Off," from The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists (Jan/Feb 1989)(electronic reserve).
  • Richard Ned Lebow and Janice Gross Stein, "Reagan and the Russians," in Atlantic Monthly (Feb. 1994)(electronic reserve).

Due: Short Paper #3


As promised, I've plugged this one back in.

Recommended Readings-- Contending Visions:

Through the Founders' Eyes -

  • Ray Kroc with Robert Anderson, Grinding It Out: The Making of McDonald's (Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1977).
  • Sam Walton with John Huey, Sam Walton, Made in America, My Story (New York: Doubleday, 1992).
  • Kemmons Wilson, The Holiday Inn Story (New York: The Newcomen Society in North America, 1968).
  • Mark Alfino, John S. Caputo, and Robin Wynyard, eds., McDonaldization Revisited: Critical Essays on Consumer Culture (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998).
  • Barbara Ehrenreich, Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2001)(esp. intro. and ch. 3 "Selling in Minnesota).
  • William Kowinski, The Malling of America: An Inside Look at the Great Consumer Paradise (New York: W. Morrow, 1985).
  • George Ritzer, The McDonaldization of Society (Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, 1993), The McDonaldization Thesis (London: Sage Publications, 1998).
  • Eric Schlosser, Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal (New York: Harper Collins, 2002).
  • This is Nowhere (documentary film)(High Plains Film, 2002).
  • Lizabeth Cohen, A Consumers' Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003).


  • Beth Bailey, Sex in the Heartland (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999).
  • Lisa Duggan and Nan D. Hunter, Sex Wars: Sexual Dissent and Political Culture (New York: Routledge, 1995).
  • Faye D. Ginsburg, Contested Lives: The Abortion Debate in an American Community (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989).
  • Janice M. Irvine, Talk About Sex: The Battles Over Sex Education in the United States (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002).
  • Edward T. Linenthal and Tom Engelhardt, eds., History Wars: The Enola Gay and Other Battles for the American Past (New York: Metropolitan Books, 1996).
  • Jeffrey P. Moran, Teaching Sex: The Shaping of Adolescence in the 20th Century (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000).
  • John David Skretny, The Ironies of Affirmative Action: Politics, Culture, and Justice in America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996).
  • Melvin Urofsky, Affirmative Action on Trial: Sex Discrimination in Johnson v. Santa Clara (Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1997).
  • Jonathan Zimmerman, Whose America? Culture Wars in the Public Schools (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002).
  • Robin D. G. Kelley, Yo' Mama's Disfunktional!: Fighting the Culture Wars in Urban America (Boston: Beacon Press, 1997).


  • Alfred E. Eckes, Jr. and Thomas W. Zeiler, Globalization and the American Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003).
  • Thomas Frank, One Market Under God: Extreme Capitalism, Market Populism, and the End of Economic Democracy (New York: Doubleday, 2000).


  • Elaine Tyler May, "Echoes of the Cold War: The Aftermath of September 11 at Home," in Mary L. Dudziak, ed., September 11 in History: A Watershed Moment? (Duke University Press, 2003), 35-54 (electronic reserve)(Note: The electronic copy is divided into two files to speed up the downloading time -- be sure to read both files!).


History of Lee Sch - History

Often called “the Lady with the Lamp,” Florence Nightingale was a caring nurse and a leader. In addition to writing over 150 books, pamphlets and reports on health-related issues, she is also credited with creating one of the first versions of the pie chart. However, she is mostly known for making hospitals a cleaner and safer place to be.

Florence Nightingale was born on May 12, 1820, in Florence, Italy. Although her parents were from England, she was born in Italy while they were traveling. Both Florence and her older sister Parthenope were named after the Italian cities where they were born. When they returned to England in 1821, the Nightingale family lived in two homes. They had a summer home in Derbyshire called Lea Hurst, and a winter home in Hampshire called Embley. Growing up in a wealthy family, Florence Nightingale was homeschooled by her father and expected to get married at a young age. However, when she was a teenager, Nightingale believed she received a “calling” from God to help the poor and the sick.

Even though it was not a respected profession at the time, Nightingale told her parents that she wanted to become a nurse. Her parents did not approve of her decision and wanted her to get married and raise a family. Nightingale still wanted to be a nurse and refused marriage. Eventually, her father allowed her to go to Germany for three months to study at Pastor Theodore Fliedner’s hospital and school for Lutheran Deaconesses. After finishing her program in Germany, Nightingale went to Paris for extra training with the Sisters of Mercy. By the time she was 33, Nightingale was already making a name for herself in the nursing community. She returned to England in 1853 and became the superintendent and manager of a hospital for “gentlewomen” in London.

When the Crimean War began in 1854, the British were unprepared to deal with the number of sick and injured soldiers. The lack of medical supplies, overcrowding, and unsanitary conditions caused many people to complain. Newspapers began to report about the terrible state of medical care. The Secretary of War, Sidney Herbert asked Nightingale to manage a group of nurses that would go treat the wounded soldiers. She agreed, and on November 4, 1854, Nightingale and 38 nurses arrived at the British camp outside of Constantinople. When they got there, the doctors were unwelcoming because they did not want to work with female nurses. However, as the number of patients increased, the doctors needed their help. The nurses brought supplies, nutritious food, cleanliness, and sanitation to the military hospital. They also provided individual care and support. Nightingale was known for carrying a lamp and checking on the soldiers at night, so they gave her the nickname “the Lady with the Lamp.” Within six months, Nightingale and her team transformed the hospital. The death rate went down from 40 percent to 2 percent because of their work.

When Nightingale returned from the war, she continued to improve the conditions of hospitals. She presented her experiences and her data to Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in 1856. This data was the reason they formed a Royal Commission to improve the health of the British Army. Nightingale was so skilled with data and numbers that in 1858 she was also elected as the first woman member of the Royal Statistical Society. In 1859, Nightingale continued to spread her healthier medical practices by helping to set up the Army Medical College in Chatham. That same year, she published a book called Notes on Nursing: What it is, and What it is Not. Her book gives advice on good patient care and safe hospital environments. As a result of her efforts during the war, a fund was set up for Nightingale to continue teaching nurses in England. In 1860, the Nightingale Training School at St. Thomas’ Hospital was officially opened. In her later years, Nightingale was often bedridden from illness. However, she continued to advocate for safe nursing practices until her death.

Although Florence Nightingale died on August 13th, 1910 at the age of 90, her legacy continues. Two years after her death, the International Committee of the Red Cross created the Florence Nightingale Medal, that is given to excellent nurses every two years. Also, International Nurses Day has been celebrated on her birthday since 1965. In May of 2010, the Florence Nightingale Museum at St. Thomas’ Hospital in London reopened to honor the hundredth anniversary of Nightingale’s death.

Fee, Elizabeth, and Mary E Garofalo. “Florence Nightingale and the Crimean War.” American journal of public health vol. 100, no. 9 (2010): 1591. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.188607

Reynolds-Finley Historical Library. “The Life of Florence Nightingale.” The University of Alabama at Birmingham. Accessed May 1, 2018.

The Florence Nightingale Museum. “Florence Nightingale Biography.” Accessed May 3, 2018.

The National Archives. “Florence Nightingale.” September 05, 2018.

MLA - Alexander, Kerri Lee. “Florence Nightingale." National Women's History Museum. National Women's History Museum, 2019. Date accessed.


In the post-Reconstruction era, whites struggled to re-establish white supremacy, by violence and intimidation of black Republican voters in this area and throughout the South. At the turn of the century, the state legislature passed measures that effectively disenfranchised most blacks for decades. The Equal Justice Initiative reported in 2015 that the county had 15 lynchings of African Americans from 1877 to 1950, [5] most in the decades near the turn of the 20th century. This was the third-highest of any county in the state. [5] To escape the violence and oppression, thousands of African Americans left the state in the Great Migration to northern and western cities, especially after 1940.

Mechanization of farming and industrial-scale agriculture have decreased the need for workers. The rural county has continued to lose population because of the lack of work opportunities. There has been a decrease in population every decade since 1940.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 620 square miles (1,600 km 2 ), of which 603 square miles (1,560 km 2 ) is land and 17 square miles (44 km 2 ) (2.7%) is water. [6]

Major highways Edit

Adjacent counties Edit

National protected area Edit

Historical population
Census Pop.
189018,886 42.1%
190019,409 2.8%
191024,252 25.0%
192028,852 19.0%
193026,637 −7.7%
194026,810 0.6%
195024,322 −9.3%
196021,001 −13.7%
197018,884 −10.1%
198015,539 −17.7%
199013,053 −16.0%
200012,580 −3.6%
201010,424 −17.1%
2019 (est.)8,857 [7] −15.0%
U.S. Decennial Census [8]
1790–1960 [9] 1900–1990 [10]
1990–2000 [11] 2010–2016 [1]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,424 people living in the county. 55.3% were Black or African American, 42.0% White, 0.5% Native American, 1.6% were Hispanic or Latino (of any race), 0.4% Asian, 0.7% of some other race and 1.2% of two or more races.

As of the 2000 United States Census, [13] there were 12,580 people, 4,182 households, and 2,960 families living in the county. The population density was 21 people per square mile (8/km 2 ). There were 4,768 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile (3/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the county was 57.24% Black or African American, 41.41% White, 2.19% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 0.27% Asian, 0.16% Native American, 0.52% from other races, and 0.40% from two or more races.

There were 4,182 households, out of which 31.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.20% were married couples living together, 23.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.20% were non-families. 27.20% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.14.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 26.00% under the age of 18, 10.20% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 21.10% from 45 to 64, and 14.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 111.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 118.40 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $20,510, and the median income for a family was $25,846. Males had a median income of $26,900 versus $19,505 for females. The per capita income for the county was $10,983. About 24.70% of families and 29.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.80% of those under age 18 and 27.60% of those age 65 or over.

The Lee County Courthouse in located in the town of Marianna, [15] which is the county seat. [3]

Since World War II, Lee County has voted for the Democratic presidential candidate in all but two elections: 1948, when it voted for third-party Strom Thurmond rather than for Harry Truman, and in 1972, when formerly Democratic voters crossed party lines and voted for Republican Richard Nixon. The former comes with the caveat that Black people could not vote in the South in 1948, and the latter was the last year that white conservatives dominated county politics. Following passage and enforcement of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, newly registered African Americans began to support Democratic Party candidates. They have largely maintained this affiliation. Most whites have shifted into the Republican Party since the 1970s.

Lee County was established on October 26, 1866, and named for General Robert E. Lee, [3] General in Chief of the Armies of the Confederate States. It was carved from Itawamba and Pontotoc therefore, the record and list of pioneers mentioned in those counties embrace a great number who were residents of what is now Lee. [4] In 1925 L. Q. Ivy, an African-American was accused of rape in New Albany. The Sheriff transported him to Lee County, where they turned him over to a mob who burned him to death. [5]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 453 square miles (1,170 km 2 ), of which 450 square miles (1,200 km 2 ) is land and 3.2 square miles (8.3 km 2 ) (0.7%) is water. [6]

Major highways Edit

Adjacent counties Edit

National protected areas Edit

Historical population
Census Pop.
188020,470 28.3%
189020,040 −2.1%
190021,956 9.6%
191028,894 31.6%
192029,618 2.5%
193035,313 19.2%
194038,838 10.0%
195038,237 −1.5%
196040,589 6.2%
197046,148 13.7%
198057,061 23.6%
199065,581 14.9%
200075,755 15.5%
201082,910 9.4%
2018 (est.)85,202 [7] 2.8%
U.S. Decennial Census [8]
1790-1960 [9] 1900-1990 [10]
1990-2000 [11] 2010-2013 [1] 2018 [12]

As of the census [13] of 2000, there were 75,755 people, 29,200 households, and 20,819 families residing in the county. The population density was 168 people per square mile (65/km 2 ). There were 31,887 housing units at an average density of 71 per square mile (27/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the county was 73.66% White, 24.51% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.43% from other races, and 0.74% from two or more races. 1.16% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 29,200 households, out of which 36.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.60% were married couples living together, 14.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.70% were non-families. 25.00% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.05.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 27.70% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 30.50% from 25 to 44, 21.80% from 45 to 64, and 11.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.50 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $36,165, and the median income for a family was $43,149. Males had a median income of $31,039 versus $22,235 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,956. About 10.50% of families and 13.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.90% of those under age 18 and 15.50% of those age 65 or over.

Lee County has the ninth highest per capita income in the State of Mississippi.

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Unincorporated communities Edit

Lee County is served by the Baldwyn, Lee County, Nettleton, and Tupelo school districts.

Lee County has been a Republican stronghold since the mid-1980s. The last Democratic candidate who carried this county was Jimmy Carter in the election of 1980.

History of Lee Sch - History

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Stephen Girard

May 20, 1750 – December 26, 1831
Merchant, Mariner, Banker, Humanitarian

1750 – Born near Bordeaux, France, May 20th

1776 – Arrived in Philadelphia aboard “L’Aimable Louis”

1777 – Married to Mary Lum, June 6th

1778 – Became citizen of the United States, October 27th

1791 – Birth and death of only child, Mary Girard

1793 – Superintended City Hospital at Bush Hill during yellow fever epidemic

1802 – Elected to Select Councils, October 12th

1807 – Purchase block bounded by 11th, 12th, Market And Chestnut Streets, July 1st (Originally intended to be the site of Girard College)

1812 – Purchased property U. S. Bank, June 24th

1813 – Major subscriber to U.S. Bonds in support of War of 1812.

1815 – Death of Mary Lum Girard, September 13th

1816 – Appointed Director, Second U.S. Bank

1831 – Purchased Peel Hall Farm, site of Girard College, June 6th

1831 – Died December 26, aged 81 years 7 months

1851 – Reinterred Girard College, September, 30th

Suggested Reading

Stephen Girard, America's First Tycoon
Wilson George c 1995

Stephen Girard, Founder
Herrick, Cheesman c 1923

Life and Times of Stephen Girard (2 Vols.)
McMaster, John Bach c 1918


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