Review: Volume 32

Review: Volume 32

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  • Second World War
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Australian Economic History Review

The Australian Economic History Review is concerned with the historical treatment of economic, social and business issues related to Australia, New Zealand, Asia and the Pacific. Papers examine these issues not only from the perspective of economic history but also from the related disciplines of history, economics, history of economic thought, industrial relations, demography, sociology, politics and business studies. New methodological approaches are particularly welcome. The editors also wish to promote the exchange of critical comments on important topics in these fields.

In addition to its role as a leading journal of scholarly articles in the broad discipline of economic history, the Australian Economic History Review aims to provide a forum for frank and informal views on the teaching, research and institutional location of economic history.

Pearson 32 Boat Review

The Pearson 32 was launched in 1979, 20 years after the first Carl Alberg-designed Pearson Triton captured market interest at the New York Boat Show and promoted sailing as a middle-income activity. In the early 1960s, the company&rsquos principals, Clint and Everett Pearson, Alberg, and marketing strategist Tom Potter developed a reputation for functional, well built, cost-effective production sailboats that had widespread mass appeal. By the end of the first decade of production, the company had evolved into the dominant East Coast production-sailboat builder, and was bought out by aerospace giant Grumman. During these formative years, a new genre of sailboat was spawned, and each of the founders of the fledgling Pearson Co. made a sizable contribution to production-boat building. Before each went his own way, the original Pearson crew successfully turned a garage-based boatbuilding dream into a reality that spawned a dynasty.

Phase 2 of the Pearson plan came with a new owner, new designer, and new line of boats. Grumman, well capitalized from its military aircraft successes, leaped into the fray with a thick checkbook and considerable manufacturing know-how. Before they left, the Pearson cousins had recruited Bill Shaw, an 11-year veteran of the S&S design office, to be the in-house designer. He ended the Alberg era of full-keel, long-overhang sloops in favor of the fin keel, skeg, or spade rudder, and split underbody that he felt improved performance. Shaw found the Grumman era a chance to improve Pearson&rsquos production-boat building technology, and for 27 years, he acted as the chief designer and eventually general manager of the operation.

With a clear understanding of coastal weather conditions, inshore estuaries, and the cruiser-club racer mindset of potential buyers, Shaw began a campaign of designing boats of 30-plus feet that met the needs of local sailors. Pearson became a mature manufacturing company engaged in market research that showed that although customers may read stories about passages to Tahiti, in truth, they had just enough time in the summer to get to Martha&rsquos Vineyard and back. They belonged to yacht clubs with Wednesday night race series, and they wanted sailboats that could be raced and cruised without much fuss. The research also showed that more often than not, it was the skipper&rsquos wife who held a pivotal vote on which boat would eventually be bought.

Shaw&rsquos challenge became one of designing sailboats that performed well under sail in light to moderate conditions, offered accommodations that made the summer cruise more comfortable, and garnered nods of approval as the boat bobbed on a mooring in front of a club house.

The Pearson 32 embraced all of these goals, and delivered on the challenge. Its waterline footprint was wider and longer than boats of the Alberg-era. With fine forward sections and an external-ballast, lead fin keel, the 32 offered better windward performance.

For the day, it had a fairly high-aspect-ratio spade rudder that worked in conjunction with the fin keel, guaranteeing turn-on-a-dime maneuverability. Added lift from the foil shapes improved its upwind ability. With a 10-foot, 7-inch beam and fairly flat sections, the boat&rsquos righting moment derived a big boost from form stability, and consequently, it carried sail well and showed less of a heeling tendency than earlier, lean, full-keel models.

Even with a 40-percent ballast ratio, the displacement of the boat was only 9,400 pounds, a number that when taken in context with 474 square feet of working sail area added up to decent light-air sailing ability. In short, Bill Shaw had looked closely at what New England sailors and those on Long Island Sound and the Chesapeake Bay were doing with their boats and designed the Pearson 32 to be the cruiser-racer that they were looking for.

In the years to come, other manufacturers would build competitors in this size range that were faster, but each of these iterations seemed to eat away at the cruising side of the compromise. The Pearson 32 was intentionally a 60/40 cruiser-racer, a boat that was easy to sail solo, luxurious for a couple, and quite user-friendly for a young family on a two-week summer cruise. It had some wood trim, but the extruded alloy toe rail, fiberglass coamings, and nonskid gelcoat decks were an effort to lessen maintenance through the use of more durable trim and finishes.

Another Shaw trait, seen on this design, was a sensible balance between the competing influence of accommodations and hull and deck configuration. Conceived first as a sailboat rather than a sailing houseboat, the relationship between side-deck space, cabin-house shape, and cockpit size achieved a harmony that works well underway and at anchor. Extremes were avoided, and the logic of the fin keel and spade rudder underbody proved its value. The era of canoe body hulls and independent foils did improve performance, but also made running aground a bit more of a concern. A hefty well-reinforced keel stub provided a rugged garboard seam for the lead-ballast keel of the P32, and lessened worries about running aground.

There&rsquos been an ongoing debate about the Alberg era versus the Shaw era in the Pearson dynasty, and neither group seems to accept the validity of the others&rsquo claims. Alberg&rsquos boats had an aesthetic appeal, a lovely shear line, a kind motion off the wind, and their tough hulls were built as thick as a plank. Shaw brought more modern design and construction ideas to Pearson, and his boats definitely sailed faster. They were lighter, the foils added more lift, and if getting from here to there a half-knot faster is important, the Shaw design definitely trumped its predecessor.

The Pearson 32&rsquos conventional cabin profile and narrow but adequate side decks lead to an aft cockpit protected by sizable coamings and a deep self-draining cockpit well. The sloop&rsquos user-friendly deck layout came standard with an Edson wheel and a mainsheet traveler set at the forward end of the companionway hatch, just aft of a short bridge deck. This arrangement allows the mainsail trimmer to remain separated from the helmsman and jib trimmer when racing, but by the same token, it causes a short-handed crew to have jobs to do at either end of the cockpit. Because it&rsquos a relatively small cockpit, this separation of mainsheet and helm isn&rsquot as problematic as it would be aboard a larger vessel.

But there is another concern with this mainsheet arrangement that does need to be addressed: the danger of an unintentional jibe. If it occurs just as a groggy crew member makes his or her way up the companionway ladder and onto the deck, it can result in injury or even a crew-overboard incident.

Shaw always sailed and owned the boats he designed, and having been schooled by the dean of deck layout, Rod Stephens, he clearly understood the importance of optimum line leads and the efficient location of winches, tracks, and other deck hardware.

By the time the Pearson 32 was being designed and manufactured, there were enough predecessors afloat for the Pearson team to have worked out a simple and efficient sense of sail handling. Halyards were handled at the mast with the mainsail cleated in traditional fashion to the starboard side, and the jib to port. A deck-mounted winch was provided to tension the luff of the headsail, and when reliable roller furling systems stole the show, the P32 was a natural candidate for the headsail makeover.

The inboard shrouds improve the sheeting angle but cause those moving forward and aft to take an outboard route. The lifelines and the grab point provided by the shrouds themselves make it a safe enough transition for those going forward. There are handholds on the cabin house both forward and aft of the shrouds. The original gelcoat nonskid is good, and when the time comes to renew the nonskid, it can be done easily with epoxy primer and LPU top coat laden with a nonskid additive or through the use of new single-part paint products.


The four-step stainless tube and teak companionway ladder leads below to a cabin with 6 feet of head room, which seems large for a 32-footer. Immediately to port is the nav-station and to starboard is the galley. As an option, Pearson offered a quarter berth on the port side aft of the nav-station, which added a berth but eliminated the spacious port-side cockpit locker. Many of the 113 Pearson 32s built came with a two-burner alcohol stove, but there&rsquos enough room in the in-line galley for a three-burner, gimballed stove with oven, plus a sink on one side and an ice box on the other. Serious cruisers can easily convert the ice box into a refrigerator. This small but utilitarian galley is usable at anchor and underway, another good test of a functional sailboat.

Forward of the partial bulkhead that separates the galley and nav-station from the rest of the main saloon are two settee berths and a table that folds up against the main bulkhead. The two settees are good sea berths and allow for comfortable meal time seating. A small forepeak V-berth and compact but functional head make up the accommodations forward of the mast. The sloop&rsquos relatively wide beam (10 feet, 7 inches) contributes to the spacious feel in the main cabin. The bunks are a little short, and those over 6 feet, 3 inches will find themselves resisting the desire stretch out.

Shaw was careful to balance the performance needs with nice accommodations. During this era in the Pearson evolution, there was a feeling that efficiency under sail was a valuable part of cruising and that club racers were really cruising boats with newer sails and an efficient underbody.

Access to the engine is good, thanks to its location immediately under the companionway ladder. Two wooden engine bed stringers provide support for mount brackets and the original Yanmar 18 horsepower (2GM) can be easily replaced with a newer model or several other engine options. There&rsquos room for a water heater in the bottom of the cockpit locker to port (non quarter-berth models), and a battery stowage box is located in the starboard locker. Even though the systems aboard this boat were intentionally kept simple, there is pressure water in the head and galley. With the addition of a slightly larger alternator, an owner can easily add a small evaporator-type sealed compressor refrigeration system, rounding out this boat&rsquos credentials as a very capable summer cruiser.


The Pearson 32 is absolutely fun to sail. It&rsquos small enough to easily singlehand, yet large enough for a couple or young family to summer cruise. With a 208-square-foot mainsail set up with a simple slab-reefing system, and a roller-furling, 120-percent genoa, the 8- to 20-knot wind range is covered. Top this two-sail inventory off with a reaching asymmetrical spinnaker for light-air fun and functional cruising, and a small working jib to replace the furling genoa during breezy spring and fall conditions, and you&rsquore set to go sailing rather than motoring from one harbor to the next. The advantage to cruising a boat with light-air efficiency lies in the enjoyment of making good progress, even when 10 to 12 knots and shifty is the status quo.

A 5½-foot draft qualifies the P32 as a shoal water-capable cruiser that&rsquos just right for coastal cruising and exploring the estuaries along the East Coast. But with this 32-footer, the shoal draft stats also come with an efficient foil shape and external lead ballast, providing enough lift and lateral plane to enhance sailing ability both on and off the wind. Add to the mix a respectable sail area-displacement ratio of 17, and it&rsquos clear that this Pearson is more than an oversized pocket cruiser. Envisioned originally as both a club racer and a family cruiser, the boat lives up to both expectations. For those who prefer spending time sailing when they go cruising, it&rsquos a boat worth a very close look, especially with current prices ranging from $18,000 to $30,000.

The natural history of brain volume loss among patients with multiple sclerosis: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis

Background: Multiple sclerosis has been associated with progressive brain volume loss.

Objective: We aimed to systematically summarize reported rates of brain volume loss in multiple sclerosis and explore associations between brain volume loss and markers of disease severity.

Methods: A systematic literature search (2003-2013) was conducted to identify studies with ≥12months of follow-up, reported brain volume measurement algorithms, and changes in brain volume. Meta-analysis random-effects models were applied. Associations between brain volume change, changes in lesion volume and disease duration were examined in pre-specified meta-regression models.

Results: We identified 38 studies. For the meta-analysis, 12 studies that reported annualized percentage brain volume change (PBVC), specified first-generation disease-modifying treatments (e.g., interferon-beta or glatiramer acetate) and used Structural Image Evaluation of Normalized Atrophy algorithm were analyzed. The annualized PBVC ranged from -1.34% to -0.46% per year. The pooled PBVC was -0.69% (95% CI=-0.87% to -0.50%) in study arms receiving first-generation disease-modifying treatments (N=6 studies) and -0.71% (95% CI=-0.81% to -0.61%) in untreated study arms (N=6 studies).

Conclusions: In this study, the average multiple sclerosis patient receiving first-generation disease-modifying treatment or no disease-modifying treatment lost approximately 0.7% of brain volume/year, well above rates associated with normal aging (0.1%-0.3% of brain volume/year).

Keywords: Atrophy Brain volume loss Disease progression Disease-modifying treatment Meta-analysis Multiple sclerosis Systematic literature review.

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On a tour of historical sites, examining how the story of slavery is taught

Many years ago, I heard Clint Smith speak at the Aspen Institute in Washington. He was then teaching high school in Prince George’s County, Md., and pursuing a PhD in education at Harvard. My takeaway: Clint Smith was somebody who commanded attention. I purchased his self-published chapbook, “Line / Breaks,” a powerful collection of poems, and continued to follow him. Smith has since completed his doctorate published a debut book of poetry, “Counting Descent” written devastating articles on criminal (in)justice in the New Yorker become a staff writer for the Atlantic and put out his first book of nonfiction, “How the Word Is Passed: A Reckoning With the History of Slavery Across America.” Smith is a public intellectual with much to offer about teaching (and unlearning) history, the toxic effects of racism and public policy.

“How the Word Is Passed” recounts Smith’s visits to historical sites in America and West Africa to interrogate how slavery and its deleterious aftermath are taught. Smith interviews White and Black tour guides on how they educated themselves about the sites where they work. He also interviews members of the public on their reactions to new information presented on the tours. Smith grounds his work in scholarship, citing primary sources such as letters and speeches, a wide range of historians, and the indispensable oral histories of former enslaved people recorded by the Federal Writers’ Project (part of the New Deal). The result is an eminently readable, thought-provoking volume, with a clear message to separate nostalgic fantasy and false narratives from history.

Smith begins at Monticello, Thomas Jefferson’s home in Virginia, where there is “no story” without Sally Hemings. Hemings was Jefferson’s property and his sister-in-law. In other words, Thomas Jefferson’s father-in-law, John Wayles, had six children by an enslaved woman, Elizabeth. One of those six was Sally Hemings, with whom Jefferson began having sexual relations when she was about 16. Hemings birthed four of Jefferson’s children who survived to adulthood.

Jefferson’s association with Hemings was not an aberration. It reflects “the insidious, tangled relationships between white men and enslaved women.” The author of the Declaration of Independence was an enslaver who bought and sold human beings to cover his debts (read: intentionally broke up Black families), beat his slaves, “gave” enslaved people to his White children and grandchildren as “gifts,” and kept some of his own children enslaved. “This really took the shine off the guy,” a White woman and self-professed history nut on Smith’s tour remarks.

Smith next travels to the Whitney Plantation in Wallace, La., located in a majority-Black community. Wallace is one of a string of Black towns on the Mississippi River, from Baton Rouge to New Orleans, known as “Cancer Alley” because of their proximity to petrochemical plants. Cancer rates there are among the highest in the country, along with cardiovascular, respiratory and developmental ailments from toxic chemicals. Smith points out that these health disparities are not accidental they are a direct outgrowth of slavery and the economic conditions that persist for descendants of enslaved people.

Inside a church in Whitney, “hand-carved statuettes” of enslaved children illustrate that young people “sustained and embodied the institution of slavery.” Slavery flourished in America for decades after the 1807 ban on importing human beings, because children born into it were enslaved for life, including, as was often the case, children who were the offspring of White men who raped Black women. Rapes of Black women were endemic, from White sailors perpetrating violence during the deadly Middle Passage to the plantations. Violence against Black women “is the illogic of white supremacy,” Smith writes. Black women were “both undesirable and sexually objectified.”

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High-Volume Hydraulic Fracturing in NYS

The SEQR Findings Statement for high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) was issued on June 29, 2015. This concluded DEC's comprehensive, seven-year review and officially prohibits HVHF in New York.

In December 2014, the Department of Health (DOH) completed a Public Health Review of HVHF, which DEC Commissioner Martens had requested. Dr. Zucker recommended that New York should not proceed with HVHF.


DEC received more than 13,000 public comments on its Draft Supplemental Generic Environmental Impact Statement (Draft SGEIS) issued in September 2009.

In response to issues raised, DEC prepared and released for public review a Revised Draft SGEIS on September 7, 2011. DEC held four additional public hearings around the state and received another 67,000 comments.

Following release of the second draft, DEC also proposed regulations to supplement and reinforce the proposed permit conditions and received 180,000 public comments. In all, DEC received 260,000 public comments on the SGEIS and the regulations. The proposed regulations have lapsed under State law.

In September 2012, Commissioner Martens asked the Commissioner of Health to determine if the mitigation DEC proposed was adequate to protect public health. As the volume of new information on HVHF grew, the scope of the review expanded to broadly consider the public health impacts of HVHF.

At a December 17, 2014 Governor's cabinet meeting, Dr. Zucker released the DOH's Public Health Report of High-Volume Hydraulic Fracturing for Shale Gas Development (report PDF is in the press release -- link leaves DEC's website). Following the meeting, DEC and DOH issued a press release announcing the report's findings and that DEC Commissioner Martens had directed staff to complete the SEQR process in early 2015 by publishing a final SGEIS and a legally binding Findings Statement.

Please note: Some of these are large documents. Only print them if you really need to, and only those sections that you need. Double side all printing and copying jobs.

2015 SEQR Findings Statement

2015 Final SGEIS Documents

The individual chapters of the Final SGEIS (April 2015) can be viewed as PDFs (see below). The full 2015 Final SGEIS document is available as two large PDF files: Volume 1 (PDF) (37.9 MB) and Volume 2 (PDF) (3.4 MB). Although they are very large files, they are downloadable and searchable. Please note that new text in the final SGEIS has been underlined to indicate revisions to the 2011 revised draft SGEIS text, in accordance with the requirements of the SEQRA regulations, and vertical lines have been placed in the page margins at those locations.

Delete Recordings From a Specific Date Range

Amazon, of course, would prefer that you leave your Alexa recordings intact. "The more data we use to train these systems, the better Alexa works, and training Alexa with voice recordings from a diverse range of customers helps ensure Alexa works well for everyone," the company says.

But perhaps you don't want random Amazon employees listening to your recordings, even if they are anonymized. To limit the reach of your Alexa queries, navigate to Settings > Alexa Privacy > Manage How Your Data Improves Alexa > Help Improve Amazon Services and Develop New Features and toggle it to off. Amazon does warn that when you do this, "voice recognition and new features may not work well for you."

Available Issues

Archives of Natural History (formerly the Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History) publishes peer-reviewed papers on the history and bibliography of natural history in its broadest sense, and in all periods and all cultures. This is taken to include botany, general biology, geology, palaeontology and zoology, the lives of naturalists, their publications, correspondence and collections, and the institutions and societies to which they belong. Bibliographical papers concerned with the study of rare books, manuscripts and illustrative material, and analytical and enumerative bibliographies are also published.

Archives of Natural History is published by Edinburgh University Press on behalf of the Society for the History of Natural History.

The journal is indexed in the Web of Science (Social Sciences Citation Index) and has an impact factor of 0.316 (2018)

Editors and Editorial Board

Please visit the Society for the History of Natural History website for full contact details at

The editorial board of Archives of Natural History is composed of the Editors, with the Officers and Vice-president of the Society for the History of Natural History.

Associate Editors: Dr Isabelle Charmantier, Dr E. Charles Nelson, Ms Elaine Shaughnessy and Mr Ingvar Svanberg

Book Reviews Editor: Maggie Reilly

Advisory Board

Professor Kraig Adler
Dr Paul D. Brinkman
Ms Gina Douglas
Dr Clemency T. Fisher
Professor Matthias Glaubrecht
Professor Sachiko Kusukawa
Professor H. Walter Lack
Professor Arthur M. Lucas
Dr Robert McCracken Peck
Dr Pat Morris
Professor Harriet Ritvo
Professor Anna Marie Roos
Dr Anne Secord
Dr Geoffrey N. Swinney
Professor Hugh S. Torrens
Dr Fernando Vega
Dr John van Wyhe
Dr Ray Williams

Officers of the Society for the History of Natural History

President: Professor Peter Davis
Vice President: Mr Bill Noblett
Honorary Secretary: Ms Ann Sylph
Honorary Treasurer: Mr Bill Noblett
Honorary Meetings Secretary: Ms Jo Hatton

Councillors of the Society for the History of Natural History

Ms Gina Douglas
Mr Jan Freedman
Dr Eleanor Larsson
Dr Geraldine Reid
Ms Maggie Reilly
Ms Felicity Roberts
Dr Stanislav Strekopytov


Mr Jack Ashby (Strategy)
Dr Helen Cowie (Chair, Stearn Essay Panel)
Ms Miranda Lowe (Membership)
Dr Malgosia Nowak-Kemp (Representatives’ Coordinator)
Ms Elaine Shaughnessy (Newsletter Editor)

International Representatives

Central Europe: Prof. Mag. Dr. Christa Riedl-Dorn, Archiv und Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Vienna
Ireland: Dr Elizabethanne Boran
Italy: Dr Carlo Giovanni Violani, Universita di Pavia
Japan: Professor Takeshi Watabe, School of Letters, Tokai University, Hiratsuka City, Kanagawa
North America: Ms Leslie K. Overstreet, Curator of Natural-History Rare Books, Washington DC
Poland: Professor Alicja Zemianek, Jagiellonian University Botanic Garden, Kraków.
Spain: Dr Margarita Hernández Laille, Madrid
South America: Sergio Zagier


The Society for the History of Natural History is the only international society devoted to the history of botany, zoology and geology, in the broadest sense, including natural history collections, exploration, art and bibliography. Everyone with an interest in these subjects – professional or amateur – is welcome to join.

Edinburgh University Press administers membership of the Society on behalf of the Society for the History of Natural History. Please see the subscribe page for the journal for further information about becoming a member of the Society.

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Archives of Natural History is abstracted and indexed in the following:

Justin. Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, Volume II: Books 13-15: The Successors to Alexander the Great. Clarendon ancient history series

This book is the second part of Justin’s abridgement of Pompeius Trogus published in a well-known series of commented Classical texts in translation in the Clarendon Ancient History Series. The editors of Justin for the series never intended to give us the whole epitome, and decided to provide us with commentaries on the central books of Trogus’ original project, i.e., on the Macedonian books or rather on the third pentad of Historiae Philippicae. 1 The choice of the commentary’s starting point with the accession of Alexander the Great, and not with the first Macedonian book (VII), seems to be Heckel’s primary interest in and great expertise at Alexander the Great.

The series does not offer original texts, thus the quality of each volume depends greatly on the quality of the translation. In this case it has not been designed for this project particularly, but was taken from John Yardley’s Justin of 1994. Yardley’s translation is this volume’s great value. It is careful and generally true. On the one hand, however, it is sometimes more sophisticated than Justin’s Latin. On the other hand sometimes it does not render the original’s variatio stili. 2 Yardley’s other valuable contribution to this volume is the five useful appendices. Two give the readers other relevant ancient texts in translation, as e.g., entries from the Suda, Arrian’s fragments, the Heidelberg epitome and extant fragments of Trogus. Another appendix is a study of Livian and Trogan features in Justin’s original the examples nicely gathered by Yardley give readers knowing Latin some understanding of Justin’s style and literary background.

Despite the importance of translation for the series, the main body of the book is formed by the introduction and the commentary. Nineteen pages of translation (which includes also Prologues by Trogus) are preceded by 22 pages of introduction and followed by 260 pages of learned commentary. Already the introduction shows that the chronology is one of the most most crucial problems of the early Hellenistic period. In this volume Wheatley and Heckel follow cautiously the eclectic chronology proposed by Tom Boiy, but never avoid a discussion of chronological matters when chronology is debated in the scholarship.

The commentary provides, too, a lot of prosopographical guidance (it cannot be a surprise, since Heckel is the most important recent prosopographer of Alexander the Great), and numerous glosses on the geography and topography of the early Hellenistic period. Given the nature of the Successors’ rivalries, a lot of space was given to military and institutional problems (e.g., an excellent note on Argyraspids, pp. 176-178, that might also be a good encyclopaedia entry).

It must be stressed that the authors of the commentary have mastered the enormous bibliography of Alexander’ reign and of his successors. They invariably provide a good and balanced choice of the most important works and views, usually to summarise them with reasonable conclusions or questions (a rare virtue of historians expert in their field). When they have to write a comment on an issue a bit further from their exact field of specialisation, they are still able to provide useful data, but perhaps without the unique and confident understanding of what should be said that is visible in their Makedonika. Thus, e.g., Hyperides is characterised (p. 130) as an author of whom “only a few fragmentary speeches survive” he reviewer thinks that a mention of Hyperides’ palimpsest would be valuable for most readers of the commentary.

The volume is provided with a general index but, unfortunately, not with a general bibliography. The list of abbreviations that contains the most often cited works cannot replace it, and thematic bibliographies in the beginning of each section are difficult to use. Otherwise, the volume is nicely edited, with sense and care.

Yet the above criticisms are not important. As a matter of fact, Yardley, Wheatley and Heckel have given us an excellent research and study tool, which may also serve as an example of how to write a commentary to a classical text in translation.

1. The first volume, covering books 11 and 12, was published by W. Heckel in 1997.

2. An illustration of both remarks may be found already in the third sentence of the translation. Thus, Latin quotiens and quam saepe are rendered in the same way (as “how often”), although they might be well rendered differently (as “how many times” and “how often”). In the same sentence simple Latin phrase praesenti morte ereptus esset has been translated with a more decorative idiom “he had been snatched from the jaws of death.”

Watch the video: The Walking Deads End Volume 32 - Rest in Peace - Video Review! (May 2022).


  1. Aloin

    Excuse, is far away

  2. Shaktimuro

    I find this to be your mistake.

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